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Components and Essential Oils - A Research Reference Manual

By: Jade Shutes

Category: Books

Components and Essential Oils - A Research Reference Manual
only   $200.00   each

In her new reference manual, Jade provides you with a valuable resource of current research on unique components found within essential oils and supports this with research on essential oils these components are found in. The Component and Essential Oil Reference book offers quick reference charts, extensive research on a wide range of components and essential oils, as well as a complete index for ease in finding needed information. Here is a sample of the information from the reference book.


  • Limonene, α-pinene, and germacrene – High antioxidant activity The main compounds of oils showing high antioxidant activity were limonene (composition, 74.6%) in celery seed, benzyl acetate (22.9%) in jasmine, alpha-pinene (33.7%) in juniper berry, myristicin (44%) in parsley seed, patchouli alcohol (28.8%) in patchouli, citronellol (34.2%) in rose, and germacrene (19.1%) in ylang-ylang.

  • d-limonene has been clinically used to dissolve cholesterol-containing gallstones. It has also been used for relief of heartburn/GERD, because of its gastric acid neutralizing effect and improvement of peristalsis. D-limonene has well-established chemopreventive activity against many types of cancers. Evidence from a phase I clinical trial shows a partial response in a patient with breast cancer and stable disease for more than six months in three patients with colorectal cancer.[ii]

  • d-limonene possesses immunomodulatory activity.[iii]&[iv]

  • d-limonene exhibits antioxidant activity.[v]&[vi]

  • limonene exhibits sedative and motor relaxant activity.[x]&[xi]

  • limonene exhibits anxiolytic activity. At concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0%, (+)-limonene, administered to mice by inhalation, significantly modified all the parameters evaluated in the elevated plus maze test. The pharmacological effect of inhaled (+)-limonene (1%) was not blocked by flumazenil. These data suggest possible connections between the volatility of (+)-limonene and its anxiolytic-like effect on the parameters evaluated in the elevated plus maze test. The data indicate that (+)-limonene could be used in aromatherapy as an antianxiety agent.[xii]

  • Litsea cubeba and d-limonene exhibit anxiolytic and analgesic activity. In addition, both the essential oil and one of its constituent monoterpenes, d-limonene, were found to possess potent anxiolytic and analgesic activities based on the results obtained from elevated plus-maze and writhing tests.[xiii]

  • Limonene exhibits anxiolytic activity. These findings suggest that acute administration of the (+)-limonene epoxide exerts an anxiolytic-like effect on mice, and it could serve as a new approach for the treatment anxiety, since it practically does not produce toxic effects.[xiv]

  • limonene exhibits fungicidal activity against Trichophyton rubrum. (Trichophyton rubrum is known to be the most common causative agent of dermatophytic nail infections in humans.) Our results demonstrated that the volatile vapor of limonene at concentrations greater than 1 μl/800 ml air space profoundly inhibited the growth of T. rubrum. After the removal of essential oil from the Phytatrays, no resumption of cell growth was noted after 72 h of incubation, thereby indicating the fungicidal activity of the volatile limonene. Direct application of limonene in the broth microdilution assay also revealed limonene’s potent fungicidal effects against T. rubrum. Therefore, our results indicated that the treatment of fungal cells with limonene might result in an alteration in the integrity of the cell membrane.[xv]

  • Oxidized limonene is a skin sensitizer. Pure limonene is a weak contact allergen in experimental studies and seldom causes positive patch test reactions in dermatitis patients in clinical studies. Autoxidation of limonene, the primary oxidation products, the hydroperoxides (limonene-1-hydroperoxide  and limonene-2-hydroperoxide), are the most potent allergens in the oxidation mixture.[xvi]

Research on essential oils rich in limonene

  • Citrus oils exhibit anxiolytic and sedative action. In general, we can conclude that EOs from Citrus latifolia (Persian lime), Citrus reticulata  (Mandarin) and Citrus aurantium (Bitter orange) peels presents anxiolytic and sedative activity in rodents, without motor impairment. Positive results in anxiety experimental procedures are related to both generalized anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Observed results are probably due to a synergistic action of the common compounds present in the three species.[xvii]  Essential oils obtained from ripe fruit peels of C. latifolia and C. reticulata elicited anxiolytic and sedative effects. The limonene was the main compound in these essential oils, 58 and 90%, respectively.[xviii]

  • Citrus sinensis  (Sweet orange) oil demonstrated anxiolytic activity. These results suggest an acute anxiolytic activity of sweet orange essence, giving some scientific support to its use as a tranquilizer by aromatherapists.[xix]

  • Citrus limon has sedative, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.[xx]

  • Citrus limon has antioxidant activity. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress in hippocampus can occur during neurodegenerative diseases, proving that hippocampal damage induced by the oxidative process plays a crucial role in brain disorders, and also imply that a strong protective effect could be achieved using EO of Citrus limon (L.) Burms (Rutaceae) as an antioxidant.[xxi]

And much more.


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